Saturday, November 23, 2019

NEOPLASIA: Causes, Types & Symptoms

Neoplasia:
Neoplasia is condition of developing abnormal growth of cells or mass and the abnormal growth itself is called a neoplasm. It can be benign, precancerous growth, malignant or cancerous tumor. Newplasm means new growths in greek language.

Neoplasms grow on the surface of your skin. They can also grow inside of skin such as ear canals or nostrils. Neoplasms bumps are located deep in the skin surface and can’t be noticed unless they grow big. Neoplasms are same like skin or have different color. They do not cause any pain but may bleed and hurt. They grow very slowly.

Symptoms of Neoplastic disease:

There are some common symptoms of neoplastic disease:

Anemia (Low RBC count)
Appetite loss
Lesions
Skin growths
Chills and fever
Diarrhea and blood in stools
Pain in the abdomen
Fatigue that does not go away
Shortness of breath

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Symptoms:

(1) Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia MEN Type 1 Symptoms:

Constipation
Ulcers
Cushing’s syndrome
Changes in vision
Inflammation of the esophagus
Diarrhea and pain in the abdomen
Hyperparathyroidism
High levels of gastrin
Tiredness or weakness
Pain in the muscles
Kidney stones
Thinning of bones
Headaches
Sexual malfunction & infertility
Excess production of breast milk
Bones enlatgement and pain in the bones

(2) Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B Symptoms:

Growths around nerves of mucous membranes, such as the lips and tongue
Curvature of the spine
Loose joints and Long limbs
Being tall and slender
Thickening of the eyelids and lips
Small benign tumors on the lips and tongue
Abnormalities of bones of feet and thighs
Enlargement and irritation of the large intestine

Difference between cancer, tumor, neoplasia, or neoplasm:

Malignant tumors are cancers in true sense. It is wrong to mix the term cancer with neoplasm. Any abnormal growth in the tissues of body is called neoplasm and the condition is known as neoplasia. While the tumors are mass on the body and may be benign or malignant.

Tumor is any form of swelling, neoplastic or not. Tumor is a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells. The term tumor meant swelling due to an inflammation. But now this term is used within the domain of neoplasia.

Neoplasmis is synonymous with tumor. Tumor is not synonym of cancer. While Cancer is malignant while a tumor can be benign, precancerous, or malignant.

Neoplasms can be benign mass, cancer, or pre-cancerous tumors. A neoplasm is also known as a tumor. A benign neoplasm is not dangerous much as it is pre-cancerous tumor. However, malignant tumors are cancerous. They can metastasize to other tissues and organs.

Causes of neoplasm or neoplastic disease:

The exact causes of these tumor growths are unknown. But mutations in DNA give rise to cancerous growths. Improper functioning of DNA or changes in DNA within cells causes them to divide rapidly and unchecked thus giving rise to tumors and growths. Some common factors that cause benign or malignant tumor growth are:

  • Age
  • Diet
  • Stress
  • Obesity
  • Genetics
  • Smoking and Drinking
  • Chemical toxins in the environment
  • Radiation exposure
  • Hormones and immune disorders
  • Trauma or injury
  • Viruses, Infection and inflammation

Cure of malignant neoplasm:

Diagnosis at early stage is important. As soon as possible malignant neoplasm is detected, the more effectively it can be cured. About 90 % cases are diagnosed early. But if it is diagnosed late when the tumor has spread then the patient can’t be treated by simply removing the tumor.

Cutaneous neurofibroma-Neoplasm
Cutaneous neurofibroma-Neoplasm

Types of Neoplasm:

(1) Benign or non-cancerous Neoplasms:

A benign neoplasm do not has cellular features of cancer or pre-cancer cells. Benign neoplasms are called birthmarks. They appear differently from cancerous or pre-cancerous cells. You can not differentiate whether a neoplasm is benign or not. A neoplasm is considered benign if it can’t spread through the bloodstream. They are not dangerous usually but if benign neoplasms press on surrounding nerves, they need treatment. Usually, surgery is performed to remove the tumor. Radiotherapy may also be used to treat them.

Characteristics of Benign or non-cancerous neoplasms:

Benign tumors usually grow slowly.
Benign tumors are generally not life-threatening.
It has not so much potential to invade surrounding tissues or cells.
Benign tumors such as fibroids may cause serious bleeding and pain.
Some benign develop in the epithelial tissue.
Some benign neoplasms can grow in any organ such as fibromas.
Some benign neoplasms such as hemangioma cause a disturbance in eating, hearing or vision, they must be removed.
Lipomas are the most common type of benign neoplasm found in adults.

Different types of benign tumor can arise in different bodily structures. Examples of benign neoplasm include:

Adenomas such as a polyp in the colon need surgery for removal.
Skin moles and tags such as acrochordons are common.
Encapsulated skin growths: These are caused by an infection or insect bites.
Fibromas are growths that develop in the connective or fibrous tissue.
Hemangiomas are red or blue colored growth which arise due to the accumulation of blood vessel cells in the skin or internal organs.
Keloids are raised scar tissues.
Lipomas arise from fat cells and develop in the back, arms, neck or shoulders. They are soft to touch.
Uterine fibroids

Cyst VS neoplasm:
Cysts in sebaceous glands or Breast cysts are a form of benign tumor. A cyst is a sac of tissue that is filled with air or fluid. Cysts can form anywhere on the body such as bones and soft tissues.

(2) Pre-malignant or pre-cancerous Neoplasms:

A cancerous or pre-cancerous neoplasm has abnormal cells that have not spread but can become cancerous if not treated. A pre-cancerous tumor has features of a malignant tumor. Sometimes, mutations may go away by themselves. Anyhow, in some cases, these cells can become malignant and cancerous. They spread and convert into cancer. The different types of premalignant changes that can arise are the following:

(1) Atypia means the ells look atypical which may be caused by inflammation and healing and may go away after healing.
(2) In Dysplasia, cells are abnormal and disorganized. People with dysplasia are checked on a regular basis to start the cure if cells change drastically.
(3) Hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the number of cells.
(4) Metaplasia is not usually precancerous, but some cases are. Cells look normal but are not like the cell type found body.

(3) Malignant neoplasm:

A metastatic neoplasm is defined as cancer. It is most often associated with damage to a cell's DNA. A malignant neoplasm is composed of physical mass of cells that are the result of genetic mutations. These mutations cause abnormal cells to lose their normal function. If left untreated, these cancerous cells divide rapidly in an uncontrolled way. Cancer is a neoplasm that can grow rapidly, spread, and cause damage to the body. They multiply faster, live longer, and invade other cells and tissue. A metastatic neoplasm is malignant cancer that has spread to nearby or distant areas of the body. The treatments for treating malignant cancer include surgery, chemotherpay and radiotherapy.

The characteristics of malignant neoplasms include:
Abnormal cell growth
More rapid increase in size
Capacity to invade other surrounding tissues
Tendency to spread to distant organs
Lack of differentiation known as anaplasia
Irregular or bizarre mitoses
It has a higher rate of proliferation
A malignant neoplasm can grow in any part of the body

Main Types of Cancer:

Some of the main types of cancer are:
(1) Leukemia affects bone marrow. Mostly, abnormal cells are produced in the bone marrow.
(2) Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates in the immune system.
(3) Sarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in bone fat, muscle, blood vessels, cartilage, bone or connective tissues.
(4) Cancer of the central nervous system originates in the brain and spinal cord.
(5) Malignant neoplasms derived from epithelial cells are known as carcinomas. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin or tissues that line internal organs.

Spread of Malignant Neoplasms:

They spread to lymph nodes through lymphatic channels.
They also spread within body cavities such as the peritoneal cavity.
Malignant Neoplasms invade and extend into surrounding tissues.
Through hematogenous spread, malignant neoplasms spread through bloodstream.

Diagnosis of neoplastic disease:

Tests used to diagnose neoplastic diseases and cancers are:
Physical exam and health history
Blood and urine immunoglobulin studies
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
Complete blood count (CBC)
Cytogenetic analysis
FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization
Mammograms
Ultrasounds
X-rays
Endoscopy
Flow cytometry
PET-CT scan
PET scan (positron emission tomography scan)
Skeletal bone survey
Blood chemistry studies
Twenty-four-hour urine test
CT scan (CAT scan)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)


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