Tuesday, August 13, 2019

75 Lymphoma Questions: Treatment, Causes & Types

What Is Lymphoma?
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, lymph glands, and bone marrow. It is a germ-fighting network of the human body. Lymphoma can affect all the areas in lymphatic system as well as other organs throughout the body.

(1) Does Breast implant Develop Lymphoma?
It is rare but some women with breast implants develop a type of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). This is more likely with implants that have textured (rough) surfaces (as opposed to smooth surfaces).

(2) Can I drink alcohol with lymphoma?
Generally Speaking, alcohol is the major cause of certain cancer types. Epidemiological studies have shown that moderate alcohol drinkers have a lower death rate for all causes. Alcohol drinking has also been associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Article Covers:            Unknown But Helpful Things About Lymphoma.
Reading Time:             Useful 15 Minutes.
 
(3) Can Lymphoma Patients Smoke?
Lymphoma and smoking:
Although smoking is generally unrelated to the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, there is much evidence that smoking can be associated with the follicular lymphoma subtype, especially in women. Anyhow smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. If lungs are weak, then obviously, your immune system and other organs in body are affected.

(4) Can stress cause lymphoma? Or Can Stress Cause Cancer?
Over the years, Scientists have tried to know if stress can cause cancer, or cause it to grow faster. Researchers believe that the immune system suppression may make the body more susceptible to cancers such as lymphoma.

(5) What are the warning signs of lymphoma?
What symptoms are warning signs of lymphoma?

SYMPTOMS OF LYMPHOMA:

  1. Cough.
  2. Persistent Fatigue.
  3. Fever.
  4. Itching.
  5. Night sweats.
  6. Shortness of breath.
  7. Swollen glands (lymph nodes),
  8. Painless swelling of lymph nodes, often in the neck, armpit, or groin that are painless.
  9. Unexplained weight loss.

Lymphoma Cancer
Lymphoma


(6) How do you detect lymphoma?

DIAGNOSIS OF LYMPHOMA:

Tests and procedures used to diagnose lymphoma include:
  1. Physical exam. In physical examination, the physician checks for swollen lymph nodes, including in your neck, underarm and groin, as well as a swollen spleen or liver.
  2. Removing a lymph node for testing.
  3. Blood tests.
  4. Imaging tests.
  5. Removing a sample of bone marrow for testing.

RISK FACTORS OF LYMPHOMA:

(7) What Factors Increase The Risk Of Lymphoma Disease?
Factors that can increase the risk of lymphoma include:
  1. Gender: Males are more likely to develop lymphoma than females.
  2. Developing certain infections: Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori infection are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma.
  3. Age: Some types of lymphoma are more common in young adults, while others are most often diagnosed in people over 55.
  4. Having an impaired immune system: Drugs weaken immune system. Lymphoma is more common in people with immune system diseases or in people who take drugs

·         (8) Does lymphoma spread quickly?
·         Aggressive lymphoma grows and spreads quickly, and has signs and symptoms that can be severe.
·         Indolent lymphoma tends to grow and spread slowly, and has few signs and symptoms.
·         Non-Hodgkin lymphoma grows and spreads at different rates and can be indolent or aggressive.
Many types of lymphoma exist. 

(9) What Are The Major Types Of Lymphoma?


The main subtypes are:
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma (formerly called Hodgkin's disease)

TYPES OF LYMPHOMA:

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  2. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma
  3. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  4. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  5. Hodgkin's lymphoma
  6. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

·         (10) What is Hodgkin's lymphoma?
·         Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

·         (11) What is non Hodgkin's lymphoma?
·         Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is also known as B-cell and T-cell lymphomas. Itis a cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. It is also part of the immune system.

(12) What are the early signs of cancer in children?
Possible signs and symptoms of cancer in children
  1. An ongoing pain in one area of the body.
  2. An unusual lump or swelling.
  3. Easy bruising.
  4. Frequent headaches, often with vomiting.
  5. Unexplained paleness and loss of energy.
  6. Limping.
  7. Sudden eye or vision changes.
  8. Unexplained fever or illness that doesn't go away.
(13) What are the signs of lymphoma in a child?
Signs and Symptoms of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children
  1. Enlarged lymph nodes (seen or felt as lumps under the skin)
  2. Fever.
  3. Fatigue
  4. Feeling full after only a small amount of food.
  5. Night sweats.
  6. Shortness of breath or cough.
  7. Swollen abdomen (belly)
  8. Weight loss.

·         (14) Is lymphoma rare in children?
·         In children up to age 14, most lymphomas are NHL, with about 500 of these cancers being diagnosed in the United States each year. Overall, the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in children increases with age. It can occur at any age but is uncommon in children younger than 3.

(15) When should I be concerned about my child's headache?
Here is when you should worry:
  1. When a headache is accompanied by a fever and a stiff neck.
  2. When the pain is severe and unrelenting despite acetaminophen or ibuprofen.  
  3. When a headache is accompanied by frequent or persistent vomiting, especially in the absence of other signs of illness like fever or diarrhea.
(16) Can you fly with lymphoma?
Travel Advice with Lymphoma
As long as you feel fit and able then you will be fine to travel while diagnosed with Lymphoma. You should however check with your GP and follow recommendations that they have.

(17) Is exercise good for lymphoma?
Exercise Is Good Medicine For Lymphoma Patients. Exercise is good medicine, even for lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy.

(18) Does lymphoma cause joint pain?
The early symptoms of lymphoma may be minor or mimic common illness. The first sign of lymphoma may be a painless swelling in the neck, under an arm or in the groin. Other symptoms include fevers, chills, unexplained weight loss, night sweats, lack of energy, chest pain, lower back pain or itching or rashes.

(19) Do night sweats happen every night with lymphoma?
Night sweats can be related to some cancers such as lymphoma and leukemia; they can also be a side effect of certain cancer treatments. Night sweats are characterized by people waking with wet bedclothes or sheets, having an increased heart rate, and chills for 1-4 minutes.

(20) How bad are night sweats with lymphoma?
The night sweats are often described as 'drenching'. They can happen with any type of lymphoma and can also happen during the day. Lymphoma night sweats make your nightclothes and bed sheets soaking wet. Night sweats can also have causes other than lymphoma.

(21) Do night sweats always mean cancer?
Night sweats are an early symptom of some cancers. The most common type of cancer associated with night sweats is lymphoma. However, people who have an un-diagnosed cancer frequently have other symptoms as well, such as unexplained weight loss and fevers.

(22) Can lymphoma cause swollen legs?
The most common symptom is a painless swelling in a lymph node. The neck or armpits are common places noticed first, but the swelling can occur in other parts of the body including the groin. This may cause swelling in the legs or ankles or the abdomen.

(23) What foods should you avoid if you have lymphoma?
A healthy balanced diet should include:
  1. complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, oats or whole wheat.
  2. dairy products.
  3. healthy fats, such as those found in nuts, avocados, and extra virgin olive oil.
  4. lean proteins.
  5. plenty of fruits and vegetables.
(24) How much does it cost to treat lymphoma?
Patients with aggressive (n = 356) and indolent (n = 698) NHL had significantly greater health service utilization and associated costs (all P < 05) than controls (n = 1068 for aggressive, n = 2094 for indolent). Mean monthly costs were 5871 USD for aggressive NHL vs. 355 USD for controls (P < 0001) and 3833 USD for indolent NHL vs. 289 USD for controls (P < 0001).

The primary cost drivers were hospitalization (aggressive NHL = 44% of total costs, indolent NHL = 50%) and outpatient office visits (aggressive NHL = 39%, indolent NHL = 34%). For aggressive NHL, mean monthly initial treatment phase costs (10,970 USD) and palliative care costs (9836 USD) were higher than costs incurred during secondary phase (3302 USD). The mean cost of treatment failure in aggressive NHL was 14,174 USD per month, and 85,934 USD over the study period.

(25) How bad is lymphoma cancer?
It is often treatable. In the United States, the lifetime risk of getting Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is 2.1 percent. Lymphoma can occur at any age, but it is one of the most common causes of cancer in children and young adults aged between 15 and 24.

(26) Does lymphoma affect muscles?
Lymphomatous involvement of muscles has been reported to occur in only 1.4% of cases, with 0.3% occurring in Hodgkin lymphoma and 1.1% in NHL. The most common route of muscle involvement is metastatic spread from adjacent lymph nodes or other primary sources such as bone.

(27) Does lymphoma affect thyroid?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common condition, thyroid lymphoma is rare, representing less than 5% of thyroid malignancies and less than2% of all lymphomas occurring outside of the lymph nodes. No other risk factors have been identified that cause thyroid lymphoma.

(28) Is itching the first sign of lymphoma?
Hodgkin lymphoma can produce itching (pruritus), but the itching usually occurs without an obvious skin rash. Many people experience fever, night sweats and unexplained fatigue, the hallmark symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma is painless swelling in lymph nodes in the neck, underarms or groin.

(29) What type of itching is associated with lymphoma?
Pruritus (itching) is a common symptom of some types of lymphoma, especially Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also common in a type of skin lymphoma called T-cell lymphoma. Up to one third of people with Hodgkin lymphoma have itching as a symptom. It is less common in most types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

(30) Can lymphoma run in families?
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma isn't infectious and isn't thought to run in families. However risk may be slightly increased if a first-degree relative (such as a parent or sibling) has had lymphoma.

(31) Is lymphoma inherited?
Some people inherit DNA mutations from a parent that increase their risk for some types of cancer. Having a family history of lymphoma does seem to increase your risk of lymphoma. Gene changes related to NHL are usually acquired during life, rather than being inherited.

(32) What is the most aggressive lymphoma?
The most common type of aggressive lymphoma in the United States is diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Aggressive lymphomas grow and spread quickly. There is need to treat them right away without any delay.

(33) Is Stage 3 lymphoma serious?
Lymphoma most often spreads to the liver, bone marrow, or lungs. Stage III-IV lymphomas are common, still very treatable, depending on the NHL subtype. Stage III and stage IV are now considered a single category because they have the same prognosis and treatment.

(34) Is Stage 3 lymphoma a terminal?
Stage III (stage 3 Hodgkin lymphoma) may affect lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm. In Stage IV (stage 4 Hodgkin lymphoma). cancer cells have moved beyond the lymph system into other tissues and organs, such as the liver, lungs or bones.

(35) What is the rarest form of lymphoma?
Less common forms of B-cell lymphoma include:
  • Burkitt lymphoma: Considered the most aggressive form of lymphoma, this disease is one of the fastest growing of all cancers.
  • Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: This is also known as Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, develops in the bone marrow.
(36) Can lymphoma be cured without chemo?
Leukemia and lymphoma are cancers of the blood. In both these diseases, complete cure is unlikely, but the disease can be managed in most cases by triggering partial or complete periods of remission through chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment.

(37) Where does lymphoma usually start?
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are infection-fighting cells of the immune system. These cells are in the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, bone marrow, and other parts of the body.

(38) What is the difference between lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma?
Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are types of lymphomas. Lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in a subset of white blood cells called lymphocytes. The main difference between Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is in the specific lymphocyte each involves.

(39) Can a blood test detect lymphoma?
Blood tests may include a CBC and an analysis of the different types of white blood cells, in addition to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or "sed rate") and liver and kidney function tests. Blood tests cannot detect Hodgkin lymphoma.

(40) Will a chest x-ray show lymphoma?
Chest X-RAY: An x-ray can show swollen lymph nodes or other signs of disease in your chest.

Lymph node biopsy: The best way to detect lymphoma is a biopsy of a lymph node. The presence of an abnormal cell is called a Reed-Sternberg cell which indicates that the disease is Hodgkin lymphoma.

(41) Would a CT scan show lymphoma?
Computed tomography (CT) scan
CT scans are helpful for looking for lymphoma in the abdomen, pelvis, chest, head, and neck. A CT scan combines many x-rays to make detailed, cross-sectional images of body. This scan can help tell if any lymph nodes or organs in your body are enlarged.

(42) Can an MRI detect lymphoma?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan:


Like CT scans, MRI scans show detailed images of soft tissues in the body. MRI scan is not used as often as CT scans for lymphoma. But if your physician is concerned about spread to the spinal cord or brain, MRI is very useful for looking into these areas.

(43) Does lymphoma show up in CBC?
Complete blood count (CBC) – may be ordered to rule out non-lymphoma conditions (such as leukemia) and/or to see if anemia is present. A CBC can determine if the platelet count and/or white blood cell count are low, which may indicate that lymphoma is present in the bone marrow and/or blood.

(44) Can an ultrasound detect lymphoma?
If lymphoma is diagnosed, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, lumbar puncture, chest x-ray, body CT, PET, bone scan, body MRI or abdominal ultrasound may be used to look for enlarged lymph nodes throughout the human body and determine whether the lymphoma has spread.

(45) How accurate is a needle biopsy for lymphoma?
The overall diagnostic accuracy, based on the consensus diagnosis, was 85% to 87%. ... Needle-core biopsy is an effective technique for the diagnosis of lymphoma and should be considered the first-line procedure for cases with suspicion for lymphoma.

(46) Does biopsy of lymph node hurt?
You may feel some pressure when the biopsy needle is put in. After a fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy, the site may be tender for 2 to 3 days. You also may have a bruise around the site. If you have general anesthesia for an open lymph node biopsy, you will not be awake during the biopsy.

(47) Can I live without lymph nodes?
Nodes that have been removed during cancer surgery can leave part of the body without a way to drain off the lymph fluid in the affected area. Many of the lymph vessels now run into a dead end where the node used to be, and fluid can back up. This is called lymphedema, and it can become a life-long problem.

(48) When should you worry about a swollen lymph node?
See your doctor if you're concerned or if swollen lymph nodes:

(1) Have appeared for no apparent reason.
(2) Continue to enlarge or have been present for two to four weeks.
(3) Feel hard or rubbery, or do not move when you push on them.

(49) How do doctors know if you have lymphoma?
Doctor checks for swollen lymph nodes, including in your neck, underarm and groin, as well as a swollen spleen or liver in physical examination. Your Physician may also examine by removing a lymph node for testing.

(50) Is lymphoma fast growing?
Burkitt lymphoma is one kind of B-cell lymphoma, also one type of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is named after the doctor. Close to 90% of patients are male, and the average age is about 30. It is a very fast-growing lymphoma and over half of patients can be cured by intensive chemotherapy.

The second most common subtype of NHL, follicular lymphoma (FL), grows slowly, with lymph nodes doubling in size approximately every six to 12 months, and patients often get diagnosed a year or later after they first noted an enlarged lymph node.

(51) Is lymphoma cancer fatal?
Over time, these cancerous cells impair your immune system. Lymphomas are divided into two categories: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. About 12 percent of people with lymphoma have Hodgkin lymphoma. Because of breakthrough research, this once fatal diagnosis has been transformed into a curable condition.

(52) What is the life expectancy of someone with lymphoma?
The average age of those who are diagnosed with indolent lymphoma is about 60. It affects both men and women. The average life expectancy after diagnosis is approximately 12 to 14 years. Indolent lymphomas are about 40 percent of all NHLs combined in the United States.

(53) How long can you live with lymphoma?
They relate to the number of people who are still alive 1 year or 5 years after their diagnosis of cancer. Some people live much longer than 5 years. The 1, 5 and 10 year survival statistics for all stages of Hodgkin lymphoma are for relative survival.

(54) How long can you live with untreated lymphoma?
The natural history of the untreated disease is largely unknown. Hodgkin lymphoma is a highly curable cancer with modern therapy, with five-year survival rates in excess of 80%.

(55) How long is chemotherapy for lymphoma?

Number of Cycles

In Testis Cancer, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia, length of chemotherapy treatment may be up to 12 Months. Adjuvant chemotherapy is common in cancers of the breast and colon. Adjuvant chemotherapy is a therapy after surgery has removed all visible cancer. It may last 4-6 months.

(56) Can lymphoma be benign?
Benign lymphoma, also referred to as benign lymphoid hyperplasia (BLH) or as a pseudolymphoma is a rare non-cancerous (benign) tumor made up of lymphocytes. It  is difficult to diagnose benign lymphomas, and often leads to treatment for them in case they are, or will develop into, malignant lymphomas.

(57) Does anyone survive lymphoma?

Survival Rates Of Lymphoma:


In patients with stage 4 Hodgkin's lymphoma, the survival rate is low. But even in stage 4 you can beat the cancer. Hodgkin's lymphoma is curable, especially in its early stages. The one-year survival rate for all patients diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma is about 92%.

(58) Can you die from lymphoma?
Lymphoma can cause death when it affects the bone marrow to such an extent that you are unable to make new blood cells. Neutropenia: shortage of white blood cells increases your risk of infection. It is quite common for people with severe bone marrow disease to die from an infection (eg chest infection).

(59) Is lymphoma deadly?
About half of the blood cancers that occur each year are lymphomas, or cancers of the lymphatic system. About 12% of people with lymphoma have Hodgkin lymphoma. Because of breakthrough research, this once fatal diagnosis has been transformed into a curable condition.

(60) What is the most common lymphoma?
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common subtypes of B-cell lymphoma. This is the most common form of lymphoma. About 30% of NHL in the United States is this type. It is an aggressive form of NHL that involves organs other than the lymph nodes about 40% of the time.

(61) Can lymphoma be completely cured?
For patients with fast-growing lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), the disease can be cured with combination chemotherapy. The slow-growing lymphomas are not curable with standard chemotherapy, but patients may live with them for many years.

(62) Is lymphoma painful in neck?

Initial Symptoms of Lymphoma:

Painless swelling in the upper body lymph nodes, i.e., the neck, collarbone region, armpits or groin. A swollen lymph node is normally NOT as painful as an infected lymph node, which is common and can be painful.

(63) Which is worse Non Hodgkins or Hodgkins lymphoma?
In addition to the presence or lack of Reed-Sternberg cells, other differences between Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma include that: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is often diagnosed at an early stage and is therefore considered one of the most treatable cancers.

(64) Will you die from lymphoma?
Lymphoma can cause death when it affects the bone marrow to such an extent that you are unable to make new blood cells. Neutropenia: shortage of white blood cells increases your risk of infection. It is quite common for people with severe bone marrow disease to die from an infection (e.g., chest infection).

(65) What is the survival rate for lymphoma?
Hodgkin's lymphoma is treatable, especially in its early stages. The one-year survival rate for all patients diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma is about 92 percent. The five-year survival rate is about 86 percent. For people with stage 4 Hodgkin's lymphoma, the survival rate is lower.

(66) What causes follicular lymphoma?
Doctors don't know what causes follicular and other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Unlike some cancers, they are not passed down in families. In some cases, radiation or cancer-causing chemicals, or certain infections, may be a cause of the cancer.

(67) What is the best treatment for follicular lymphoma?
For relapse where the duration of remission is at least 1 y, therapeutic options include the following:
  • Clinical trial with correlative science studies.
  • Rituximab chemotherapy with or without rituximab maintenance.
  • Rituximab re-treatment (if used initially)
  • RIT.
(68) Is follicular lymphoma common?
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most common cancers in the United States. More than 72,000 people are diagnosed with a form of it every year. About one in every five lymphomas in the United States is a follicular lymphoma.

(69) Can follicular lymphoma affect the brain?
Rarely when follicular lymphoma has spread to the brain, chemotherapy can be administered into the cerebrospinal fluid to kill lymphoma cells in the brain or spinal cord. The way chemotherapy is given depends on the stage of the cancer.

(70) Is follicular lymphoma rare?
Follicular lymphoma is the most common type of indolent lymphoma, or slow-growing lymphoma. In USA, it accounts for about 20 percent of all lymphoma cases. The disease is typically diagnosed in middle-aged or older adults and is most often found in the bone marrow or lymph nodes.

(71) How long can you live with follicular lymphoma?
For patients with advanced forms of follicular lymphoma stages III and IV disease, the average survival is greater than 20 years. Despite its slow-growing nature, it is unclear whether most cases of follicular lymphoma can be cured with currently available treatments.

(72) Is follicular lymphoma genetic?
Follicular lymphoma is an incurable cancer that affects over 200,000 people worldwide every year. One of the common features of follicular lymphoma is a genetic abnormality between two chromosomes. In an event known as "chromosomal translocation" the two chromosomes 14 and 18 "swap" certain parts with each other.

(73) Is follicular lymphoma deadly?
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is typically a slow-growing or indolent form of non- Hodgkin lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is usually not considered to be curable, but more of a chronic disease. Patients can live for many years with this form of lymphoma.

(74) What are the grades of lymphoma?
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is classified into the following 3 histologic grades:
  • Grade 1:     0-5 centroblasts/high-power field (HPF)
  • Grade 2:     6-15 centroblasts/HPF.
  • Grade 3:     > 15 centroblasts/HPF.

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